Homo sapiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi, Chancelede

Paleoanthropological findings indicate that humans similar to us were distributed in the africa, europe south west asia,south asia,south east asia,australia and americas.the earliest of these fossils to be discovered was from cro-magnon(France) in 1868. many fossils were found around many of the above places.all fossils,though grouped together, are different to some extent.those from cromagnun are typical belonging to aurignacian culture of upper paleolithic.Grimaldi man also belong to same period but bear some negroid charcteristic.chancelade man belongs to magdalenian culture.

Cro-Magnon Man:

1) 5 skeletons from a cave in cro-magnon,framnce.belonging to two adult men one women an infant an old man.

2)late pleistocene,30-40 thousand years ago.aurignacianculture of upper palaeolithic.

3)the animal bones belong to mammoths,cave bear,wooly rhinos

4)height 180cm,cranial capacity 1550 to 1650cc.the skull was very long but short in bredth(dolicocephalic).

5)there were disharmonious combinations of face and skull.skull was narrow and long but face broad,short and flat.orbits were rectangular and nose long and narrow.the skull has marked prognatheism(Prognathism is the positional relationship of the mandible or maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull.).

6)the lower jaw possessed well marked chin.both front and cheek teeth were smaller.

7)the post cranial elements included bones of fore limbs and hind limbs.longer legs longer distal limb segment indicate efficient bipedal walking.

8)femur is developed with linea aspera which suggests a strong musculature.individuals were thus tall with well developed musculature.pelvis of female indicated birth of less mature babies and thus longer socialisation.

9)Evolutionary possibilities of cromagnon is unclear.fossils similar to it have been discovered from africa and south west asia dating .1 mya whereas non of the european fossils are older than 40 thousand years.it is not known where and when transformations to modern sapiens occured.we do not know even interaction between modernand archiac sapiens.

10)culturally these people were much advanced than the earlier forms.their tool included more new devices,the bow andarrow,spear thrower,complex bone tools,method of food storage,improved hearths,clothing,larger dwellings.faunal remains indicate a planned hunting.

Grimaldi Man:

1) skeletons of a women aged 30 and a boy aged 15 were discovered from a cave called grotes in grimaldi in mediterranean coastal region.

2)aurignacian culture,similar to those of cromagnon and included such tools as knives scrapers saws.

3)the skull was more long and narrow compared to cromagnon skull and hence these skulls were classified as hyper dolicocephalic.cranial capacity was less with 1250-1450cc.

4)Face, like cromagnon,was short but below cheek bones it was more narrow hence face presented a triangular outline.the orbits like cromagnon man was rectangular.the lower boeder of nasal aperture similar to the negroids were not sharp.the alveolar border was u shaped and had marked prognatheism.face thus has many similarities with negroids.

5)lower jaw too had many similarities with those of negroids.it was strong broad with thick body but low ramii.the chinwas poorly developed and alveolar margin projected forward.

6)the teeth were in general,larger and molars were like those of australoids in having 4 cusps in upper and 5 cusps in lower series.

7)inpost cranial skeleton the hind limbs were very long compared with fore limbs indicating less energetic bi-pedalism.the fore arm was longer than arms and leg was longer than thigh.such suchproportions resemble negroids.

8)both cromagnon and grimaldi belong to the late pleistocene and represent early populations of europe.judjing fromthe similar post cranial elements both seem to equally capable of efficient nonenergetic bipedalismand efficient hand manipulations.

Chancelade man:

1)Skeleton of a man with its hand folded on the chest and its knees touching its jaw from chancelade france.

2)the fossils belong to magdalenian culture in some parts of europe.resembledinmany features to modern eskimos.

3)the skull was long and narrow(dolicocephalic) with cranial capacity 1500-1700cc.the parietal tuberosites were also developed.the sagittal crest is more developed than cromagnonman.

4) facial skeleton of chancelade man differ from those of cromagnun.face was long and broad and thus was in harmony with skull.the orbits were quadrilateral and cheek bones were prominent.

5)lower jaw had unique proportions the rammi were very broad but the body was very narrow.prominent chin was also indicated.the mastictory apparatus was thus powerful and similar to those of eskimos.

6)the limb bones of chancelade man was shorter with upper limb bones beinglonger than the lower limbs.

7)it is hypothesized that chancelade man were ancestors of modern day eskimos which are distributed north america.

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