Primate taxonomy(Arboreal and terrestrial)

Primate–prosimii and Anthropoidea.

Prosimii—Tupeiformes, Tarsiiformes, Lorisiformes,Lemuriformes

Anthropoidea—Ptayrrhini and catarrhinis

Ptayrrhini—ceboidea—-cebedae and cellithricidae

catarrhini—-cercopithecoidea and hominoidea


Hominoidea—-hylobatidae, pongidae,hominidae.


(Suborder) Prosimians- Lemurs, Loris, Tarsier — primitive mammalian characteristics, mostly nocturnal and arboreal (except for the lemurs, which are diurnal)

Tupaiiformes(tree shrews)

Long feathery tails and fur covered body,looks like small squirrel, Diurnal in habit, some are nocturnal and has scotopic or night vision.omnivirous,characteristic of skull, auditary chamber, visual apparatus show similarities with formula is 2*1*3*3/3*1*3*3.


consist of single genus called Tarsius, body has furry covering,rotate heas to 180 degree,long tail long hindlimbs, they hop like frogs,clawlike nails,fibula and tibia are fused together,dental formula-2133/1133


arboreal and nocturnal primates,dental formula-2133/2133,hands and feet are prehensile.adapted for grasping,body has a furry covering,size from large mice to large rabbit.


most are diurnal but some are nocturnal,many are arboreal they can leap great distance.2133/2133


(Suborder) greater reliance on sight (over sound and smell), larger brains, greater flexibility of locomotion.. split into New World Monkeys and Old World Primates

Platyrrhini(New world monkey)

(Infraorder) New World Monkeys– wide open nostrils that are far apart– split into Cebidae and Callitrichidae

Ceboidea(new world or platyrrhine monkey)


(Family) Capuchin-like Monkeys, mostly arboreal, prehensile tails, live in neo-tropics and sub-tropics; within Platyrrhini-dental formula-2133/2133.


(Genus) Capuchins, largest brain-to-body ratio; within Cebidae


(Genus) squirrel monkeys; within Cebidae


(Genus) Titi monkeys; within Cebidae


(Genus) Spider monkeys; within Cebidae

Primate Anatomical Specializations

Larger brain, grasping extremities, enhanced visual perception– explained by arboreal hypothesis vs visual predation hypothesis

Cenozoic Era

Age of Mammals; 65 mya until now

Adaptive Radiation

Speciation resulting from macro-evolutionary episode


(Genus) Howler monkeys; within Cebidae,live in the highest branches of big trees didn’t even come to drink water.leaping,quadrapedal locomotion,their tail is prehensile.


(Genus) Muriquis– largest neotropical primate; within Cebidae


(Family) Tamarins & Marmosets; squirrel-like in size, bird-like chirping, claws rather than nails, monogamous family units; within Platyrrhini

Catarrhini(Old world monkeys)

Cercopithecoidea(old world monkeys)

(Superfamily) Old World Monkeys– includes Cercopithecidae


(Family) Old World Monkeys; “tailed apes” but never prehensile, prefer to eat plant matter, single births, matrilineal troops


(Subfamily) Guenons, Macaques, Baboons; tough, gregarious, highly adaptable generalists, Cheek pouches


(Genus) — includes rhesus, the stumptail, and the snow monkey; within Cercopithecinae, within Cercopithecidae, within Cercopithecoidea,adapted to both terrestrail and arboreal habitats,sexual dimorphism,larger canines than females,live in groups


Papio(Genus) Baboons, drills, mandrills,adapted to both terrestrail and arboreal habitats,sexual dimorphism,larger canines than females,live in groups


(Genus) known as Guenons; within cercopithecinae,mostly arboreal,terrestrial habits a swell,frugivorous


(Subfamily) Colobus and Leaf monkeys — complex stomachs, no cheek pouches, arboreal, slender build — includes proboscis monkeys, golden monkeys, langurs, and colobus monkeys,brachiation,live in groups,


(Superfamily) Hominoids- Apes and Humans; tail-less primates, wide chests, great rotational ability in shoulders


Arboreal creature,true brachiators,fine precision grips,can move walking in upright formula of gibbon is 3>2>4>5>1 for both hands and feet.




Largely arboreal,mobile shoulders which help in braciation, produce a variety of facial expression,digitalformula is 3>2>4>5>1.cranial capacity for men is 416cc,sexual diamorphism is obserbed.


terrestrial animals but sleeps on trees, chest beating is done by them,called braciaters but their locomotion is not brachiating,lives in group of 5 to 10.foot resemble like human foot.moves quadrapedal


more active and noisy,vegetarian mostly,can use tools,quadrapedal.


Homo—homo sapiens is represented by humans.

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