Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
Both genetic and environment factors influence most of our characteristics. Some categories can be recognised which include elements of both heredity and environment. They may broadly be categorised as:
1.differences due to accident.(diseases)
2.differences due to adaptive response during the lifetime of the individual(climatic)
3.differences due to cultural influences(natural selection).
Racial classification and differentiation:
in 1931 and subsequently in 1947 Hooton, an american anthropologist have proposed the now widely accepted classification of races into three major groups-Caucasoid,Negroid,Mongoloid-with each one of them furthur divided into different subtypes.
The following table gives a idea about their racial features.
Traits caucasoid negroid mongoloid
skin color—light reddish white to olive brown—-brown to brown blach—light yellow to yellow brown
flair(head)—color;light blond to dark brown;texture:fine to medium;form:straight to wavy—color:brown black;texture:coarse;form:curly to wooly—-color:brown to brown black;texture:coarse;form:straight.
Hair quantity(body)–moderate to profuse—-slight—-sparse
eye—light blue to dark brown—-brown to brown black—-brown to dark brown
head form—dolicocephalic to brachycephalic—– predominantly dolicocephalic—-predominantly brachycephalic.
Face—narrow to medium broad—medium broad to narrow/pronatheism—medium broad to very broad/high cheek bones.
Nose—leptorrhine to mesorrhine/high bridge—-platyrrhine/low bridge—–mesorrhine to platyrrhine/low to medium bridge.
Stature—medium to tall—-very short to tall—-medium to short.
ABO blood group—high incidence of A—high incidence of A and B…high incidence of a
rh factor—high frequency of rh negative—-moderate frequency of rh negative—rare occurance of rh negative.
Lets discuss each of these major races in some detail.
A wide range of variation is observed in respect of many characters is discussed above.
A large number of ethnic group come under this division of mankind. Here the most representative types discussed.
they migrated to many regions apart from the mediterranean countries like arabia iran afganistan pakistan and india.
Though all members of the mediterranean exhibit some remarkable common characters,three sub types are distinguised among them. These are classic mediterranean,atlanto mediterranean,indo afghan mediterranean.
Classic mediterranean-whole of mediterranean basin,pertugal,spain,france,italy. Eastern central and north western europe. North africa. Skin is tawny white or light brown.
Atlanto-mediterranian-darker skin color,north africa,iraq,palestine.parts of arabia and the eastern balkans.
Indo-afghan- very light brown skin,iraq,iran,india and pakistan.
skin color is florid or reddish white. Baltic region,northern germany,northern france,parts of netherlands andbelgium.
skin color is olive or brunette white or bronze. Central europe,balkans denmark,norway,north italy.
skin color is tawny white or creamy white. North east germany,poland,baltic states,russia,finland etc.
skin color is variable:usually lighter or brunette. Yugoslavia,alvania,austrian,tyrol.
Olive or tawny white skin color. Turkey,syria, and palestine.
skin color is pale white. Iceland scotland wales.
skin color varies from greyish yellow to yellowish brown. North scandanavia,north finland,norway and n-w russia.
Skin color varies from light brown to dark brown. South india and central india.
Skin color varies from light brown to yellow brown. New zealand friendly island,samoa,hawaii.
skin color is light brownish white. North japan,yezo,south sakhalin.
1.the classic or central mongloid.
2.the arctic or northern mongloid or eskimoids
3.the southern or indo malayan mongloid
4.the american indians.
1.The classic or central mongloid.
The skin color is yellow or yellow brown. Siberia,amur river distict, north china,mongolia and tibet.
2.The arctic or eskimoid.
Yellowish skin color, north asia,arctic coast of nort america,greenland.labrador,west alaska.
3.Indonesian malay mongloid.
Malay type-skin color is light yellow brown to dark yellow brown. South china, indo china, burma, thailand, malay peninsula,phillipines and japan.
Indonesian type or nesoit.
Skin color is light red brown to medium brown. South china, indo china,burma,thialand
4.the american indian.
Skin color varies from yellow brown to red brown.
In respect of head form two types are distinguished;dolicho-mesocephalic and brachycephalic
Distributed in north middle and south america.
The skin color is dark brown to black. The hair on head is woolly or frizzly;marked facial prognatheism.
The negroids are divided in to
1.african negro 2.oceanic negro.
→true negros-dark brown or black skin color;woolly hair. West africa and in guiena cost.
→nilotic negroes-skin color very dark. Upper nile valley and eastern sudan.
→bantu speaking negroid-the prevalent skin color is dark chocolate, it varies from yellowish brown to black. Central and southern africa. These bantu speaking peoples, who are essentially negroes, are mixed up with hamitic. Negrillo and bushmen-hottentot elements.
→bushmen-hottentot-bushman are mainly confined to kalahari desert but formerly they occupied to greater part of south africa. The hottentot are foundin s-w africa.
Skin color light to brownish yellow in bushmen and light reddish yellow in hottentot.
→negrillo(african pygmy)-136cm. Skin color is yellowish light brown or reddish yellow, sometimes very dark.
Equatorial forest of congo region.
1.Negritos-the andamanese semang aeta tapiro are the important representatives.
→Andamanese-148cm. Skin color bronze to sooty black. Andaman islands.
→semang-152cm. Skin color is dark chocolate brown. The semangs live in the central region of the malay peninsula.
→aeta-146cm. Skin color is sooty brown. Phillipine island.
→tapiro-146cm. Skin color yellowish brown. They live in new guinea
2.papuans and melanesians.
papuans-the papuans are distributed in new guinea and other island of melanesia. 168cm. Skin color is dark chocolate or sooty brown.
Melanesians-skin color is dark chocolate, some times copper colored, some times very dark. The melanesians are distributed in some coastal parts of new guinea and neighbouring islands in fiji, admiralty island,new caledonia,etc.