A few bones of skull and limb were discovered in 1921 at Broken hill mine, rhodesia.it is believed that the form existed during last lag of erectus about 0.2mya.
1)the skull reconstructed from available bones indicate to be narrow and long in the shape.
2) the cranial capacity has been variously measured tobe from 1280-1400cc.
3)supraorbital ridges are prominent and fore-head is receding
4)Maxillae and pallate are massive.
5)orbits are high and enlarged
6)teeth ingeneral are like those of modern sapiens.
7)face is muzzle like in appearance. Rhodesian man exhibits erectus neanderthal and sapiens features at the same time hence its taxonomic status has been a matter of controversy.Though insome features it resembles neanderthals, typical neanderthal complex of characters is lacking hence its inclusionin neanderthals is disputed.it shows definite advancement over erectus and possession of some sapiens feature.hence majority of workers considerthe sample having closer affinities with modern man.
From 1,20,000 years ago to 30000 years ago distinctive group of people collectively called neanderthals lived in europe.more than 250 remains, in varying completeness of such people have been found in europe,east and central asia. Neanderthals are divided into two groups:Classical and Progressive.
Progressive neanderthals(Mount carmel Man):
Mount carmel,Palestine.the first cave yielded skeleton of an adult female,consisting of a mandible with teethand other bones while second site found fragmnetary remains of about tenindividuals.
1)the cranial capacity less than classic, about 1400cc, closer to average of modern man.
2)the skull was longer than la chapelle and was less broad giving a higher caphalicindex.
3)skull was comparatively high vaulted.
4)Forehead was less receding and occipital region was slightly projecting.
5)the supraorbital torus,though slightly present did not make a continuous rounded ridge as a la chapelie man. 6)orbits were comparatively more rounded.
7)Maxilla did not project in muzzle like fashion
8)the nose was less broad with nostrils less widely separated
9)Lower jaw though slightly larger than modernman had distinct chin.
10)skull was less rough,suggesting lesserdevelopment of attachment surfaces in comparision to that of la chapelle.
Classical Neanderthals(La Chapelle Aux Saints):
it was discovered in 1908 ina cave in correnze, france.the find included cranial and post cranial materials along with such toolsas flints scrapers points and fossil remains of rhinoceros,bison,hyna.upper pliestocene. La chapelle man can be called as a prototype of classic neanderthals.
Characteristics of skull:
1)the cranila capacity was in therange of 1600cc.
2)the skull measured 208mm in length and 155mm in breadth,giving a chephalic index of 74.5.
3)the skull was large especially from lower end and behind.it is upper and anterior part of brain which is associated with higher mental abilities.neanderthal brainwas thus enlarged at the wrong places.it was low vaulted hence looked flattened.
4)forehead was receding and occipital region protruding
5)the superorbital ridge was heavy rounded and continuous torus as present in apes and erectus.
6)orbits had greater transverse diameter than the vertical diameter.
7)maxilla or upper jaw projected ina muzzle like fashion
8)the nose was broad with large wide and pyriform nasal aperture.
9)lower jaw was large and strong with very much reduced chin.its ascending rami were large and broad.
10)the whole surface of skull was rough, indicating presence of muscular impressions.
Characteristics of post cranial elements:
the classical neanderthals were slightly shorter than the progressive type but were heavier with well developed musculature and short wide phalanges.
1)the vertebral column was short and stout incomparison to progressive neandertals.
2)ribs were strong indicating large thorax.
3)Humerus was short strong with a large head like those in modernman.structure of shoulder and upper arm blade indicate great development of a muscle,teros muscle,that pull the hands down.helps in throwing activities.
4)Radius has strong curvature
5)fingers were comparatively shorter.
6)femur was strong with large head
7)the historical examinations ofthe bones of neanderthals indicate a low life expectancy. Socio-cultural behaviour: tool-making. Rock-shelters.
doubtful with poor development of pharynx. Clothing-presence of bone needles at certain sites indicate tailoring activity. Ritulaistic burials. Society and relation-group activities such as hunting and migrationmay have developed nomadic society with interpersonal relathionship.
Theory of origin:
a)Neanderthal phase of human hypnosis: the theory favours a single line human evolution and maintains that early sapiens evolved in neanderthals developed in isolated pockets into next higher forms ofman, cro magnon .thetheory thus considers neanderthals as specialized stage in human evolutionary progressions.
b)ever since the post erectus days there has existed double lineages one through laetoli hominid,fontechevade man embarked upon the path of human evolution,and the second through stenheim swanscombe ehringdorf,krapina,la chapella auxsaints ended with neandertals.