Tertiary and quaternary fossil primates


Cenozoic Era(age of mammals)->Secondary period->Tertiary Period->quaternary period.

Tertiary Period->Palaeocene Epoch->Eocene Epoch->Oligocene->Miocene->Pliocene.

Quaternary Period->Pleistocene epoch->Holocene or recent Epoch.

Tertiary Period

Palaeocene Epoch

75 mya, earliest lemroids,tarsioids,insectivorous.

North america and france,Teeth and fragements of jaw,Several genere have been identified:Carpolestidae,Phenacolemuridae,Plesiadapidae.

the Family carpolestidae is represented by jaws, both Maxille and mandibles, and teeth.in someof their dental characters they resemble an extint mammal multituberculata, and the rat kangaroos of australia.

Phenacolemuridae represents the erliest of the primates and very little is known about them.

Plesiadapidae-a whole fossil skul and other part of skelton.Range from that of a squirell to that of a domestic cat.incapable of stercoscopic vision,the postorbital wall was absent.the front teeth werelarge and procumbent and shows resemblence to aye aye lemur.their flattened claws resemble living tupaia.

dental characters shows fossil resemblance to order primate.and some also conclude to earliest lemroids and lemurs.

Eocene primate

58mya,abundance of modern mammals.

Larger brains and bigger eyes than the palaecene time,enlargement of brain is an important character.the orbits were enlarged and rotated towards the front of the skull.foramen magnum gives indication as how skull was attached to the spine.from this we can learn that those eocene primates were erect while hopping and sitting, thus their fore limbs were shorter than hind limbs.

The five familiesof eocene period:Adapidae,Anaptomorphidae,Microsyppidae,Omomyidae,Yarsiidae.

Adapidae-dividedinto Adapinae and Notharctinae.small insize like modern lemurs,dentalformula 2143,four premolars were seen,small brain,general structure limbs,opposable thumb and a big toe.long snout and broad vision,resemble living malagasy lemurs

Anaptomorphidae-Early andmiddle epocene,shorter snout than adapidae,dental fromula-312/21,skull resemble tarsiers.

Microsyopidae-were relatevely large animals attaining the size of living indriidae od medagascar.

Omomyidae-remains of hoanghonius stehlini,a genera of omomyidae suggets the relationship of epocene primate of asia and america.

Tarsiidae-sub family:Necrolemurinae-resembles the living tarsiers in many features of skull.

We found the monkeys of different varieties in the prosimians.

Oligocene Primate

The egyptian fossil remains includes Parapithecus,Propliopithecus,Mocropithecus,Oligopithecus,Aeolopithecus,Aegyptopithecus,etc.

Parapithecus-a well preserved lower jaw,and some teeth found in the lower oligocene deposit in fayum,egypt.the jaw appears of a very small animal size of a little squirrel monkey today.sdental formula 2123,it isregarded asearliest and most primitive catarhhine monkey.reduction in the number of premolar suggests shortening of muzzle and jaw.the jaw in turn suggests an expanded brain and a short face.considered as intermediate form between prosimmians and anthropoids.

Propliopithecus-lower jaw with its teeth but without the ascending ramii was discovered.considered a primative antropoid ape.and closely related to gibbon.the jaw was somewhat deeper shorter and more pointed than the jaw of modern gibbon.the canines were not so bigs.so this sows for the ancester to hominoidae but except gibbon which shows more resemblence to Acolopithecus.

we found the ancester of hominoidea in the Oligocene Primates.

Miocene-Pliocene Primates.

These two can be considered together,because there seems to be continuity of certain lineages of anthropoidea during these two epochs.

Here we will be dealing with certain important member of the hominoid member only

Pliopithecus: a fossil ape represented by an incomplete mandible to which was given the name pliopithecus.it is a gibbon like animal,in respect of teeth narrow snout portion it resembles gibbon.with regard to certain other characters like upper limb spinal column and general body proportion they resemble amonkey.

From east african miocene deposits also certain fossil have been discovered which resemble modern gibbon.


The dryopithecine primate of different varieties florished in europe, africa and asia during miocene and pliocene epoch.lower jaw and teeth of this extinct has been discovered.the phylogenetic relathionship are determined on the basis of dental anatomy mostly.the opinion of hellman and others was dryopithecine primates were on a distinctly infrahuman grade of evolution.

Dryopithecine may be Grouped under Dryopithecinae and Ramapithecus

Pongidae-sub family-Dryopithecinae —–Dryopithecine


Dryopithecinae—Dryopithecus and gigantopithecus

Ramapithecus—-Brahmapithecus and kenyapithecus.

Dryopithecus:Some teeth and jaw bone from miocene and pliocene deposits from europe and shiwalik hills of india.the incisiors are smaller and more vertical in Dryopithecus than those in ponginae.the canines are larger than those in homoinidae.the arrangement of cusp are in adefinite pattern that it forms a Y.these pattern are found in gibbon,other ape and man.they were probably quite ape like.the limbs were very generalised shows neither brachiation nor bipedal locomotion.they are most likely ancesters od modern ponginae: i.e. gorilla and chimp.

Proconsul: may regarded as african african varieties od dryopithecus.early miocene.kenya,eastafrica.uganda.three species has been identified.proconsul africanus,Proconsul major, Proconsul nyanzae.

Proconsul africanus: fairly complete skull of an adult.size intermidiate netween a gibbon and a chimpanzee.the skull has no superorbital torus.the incisive region of upper jaw is narrow.the nasal bones are relatively broad.the mandibular condyle is of homonid form.the skull is however, cercopithecoid in appearance.

Proconsul major isrepresented by right side of a mandible with the second premolar.and all the molar teeth in it.the mandible is massive which resemble gorilla in size.

proconsul nyanzae fossil found in rusinga island.an almost complete mandible of an adult was discovered.they are of a size of chimp.

Sivapithecus:dryopithecus sivalensis is another variety.miocene deposits of the shiwalik hills of india.it resembles orang.

Ramapithecus: In certain dental characters ramapithecus is markedly different from dryopithecus.the incisiors and canines are smaller in relation to molars, but it is not so in dryopithecus.the dryopithecus pattern of molar cusp is not seen in ramapithecus.the upper jaw of ramapithecus is shortened,it doesnot protrude forward but is long vertically.the palate of ramapithecus is arched,itis wider behind than in front and approaches man.the short deep face of ramapithecus explains that perhaps it doesnot use teeth as weapons like dryopithecus to some extent but uses hands for hunting and defence and it was probably an erect biped with ahnds free.

Perhaps Ramapithecus is most likely the ancestors of homo sapiens.

Kenyapithecus:an upper jaw with teeth of a primate from kenya ,africa.it doesnot differ significantly from ramapithecus

Gigantopithecus: three man like molar teeth.the crown of lower third molar was six times larger than man.

Oreopithecus: small size odteeth,absence of premolar, diastema,small canine,short and not so prognathous face.mental foramine are placed in higher places as in man.the bones of pelvis, illiac, spine, leg bones, etc, suggest that it is capable of bipedal locomotion.it must thence be considered hominoid.

Quaternary fossil ->Pleistocene and halocene(recent)

Pleistocene-> Australopithecine->homo erectus->Neanderthal man->Late pleistocene epoch.


Multiple remains of the members of the australopithecine were discovered from different parts are given below:

Southafrica: Australopithecus africanus, pleisanthropus transvaalensis, paranthropus robustus, australopithecus prometheus, paranthropus crassidens,teleanthropus capensis.

East africa: zinjanthropus boisei, Homo habilus, Australopithecus.

West africa: Australopithecus

Palestine: Australopithecus

china: Australopithecus.

Java: Meganthropus paleojavanicus.

Australopithecus africanus: (Taungs ape)

complete skull found in 1924 at Bechuanaland south africa.the skull contain 20 milk teethand 4 permanent first molars.the size of the cranium and facial portion closely resembles that of the chimp.the head is dolicocephalic.the face is concave as inthe orang.the premaxilla is well marked as in the apes.the flat nasal bones resembles that of the chimp.a diastema is present in the upper jaw between the lateral incisor and the canine.cranialcapacity was 520cc.

How it differed from the present apes?

The face is small,the nasal aperture is high,the nasal bones are short.broad and separated by internasal suture;in geneal appearance the face is more in harmony with the head.

Again AUSTRALOPITHECUS approaches man in the character of the enlarged cranium;highly arched forehead;position of the orbits;downward face;position of nucal plane.faint supraorbital ridges;relatively nataroirly placed foramen magnum.

The jaw is massive.in some characters it resembles that of the apes.the molar teeth are very large but quite humanoid.

Plesianthropus transvaalensis(the sterkfontein man-ape):

in 1936 atthe cave of sterkfontein in transvaal.complete skull without jaw,some teeth and skull fragments.the cranial capacity is 600cc.the face is concave in profile.nasal bonesare long.superorbital ridges are moderately developed.prmaxillary suture is visible.a diastema in between the lateral incisor and canine is present.alveolar prognatheism(Prognathism is the positional relationship of the mandible or maxilla to the skeletal base where either of the jaws protrudes beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull.) is highly marked.molars were larger than that of chimp and man;canine is relatevily small.

Paranthropus robustus.

It was represented by apart of skull,part of somelongbones like humerus and ulna.some carpel and tarsalbones.cranial capacity 600cc,the cheek bones are projecting forward.preamxilla is marked off from maxilla.diastema(the gap between two teeth) is present,prognathism(when mandible protrudes out more than normal.) is noticed.

Australopithecus Prometheus.

Central transvaal.a fragment of a calvarium consisting of major portion of the occipital bone and the posterior part of two parietal bones wasdiscovered.the boneswere very thick,the occipatal tarus(back bulging of head) was moderately developed.

A complete mandible was found later year.the jaw was chinless and the simian shelf(The simian shelf is a bony thickening on the front of the ape mandible. Its function is to reinforce the jaw, though it also has the effect of considerably reducing the movement of the tongue by restricting the area available for muscles.) was absent.the teeth resembled closely the those of heidelberg men and sinanthropus.

Paranthropus crassidens:

s watkrans.many skulls,teeths,right half of a pelvis.the skull is provided with a sagittal crest (ridge of bone on the skull.)simialr tothat in male gorilla.supraorbital ridges are projecting with a prominent supraorbital torus.upper jaw id prognathous(having a projecting lower jaw or chin.).there is no premaxillary diastema.theincisor and canine are typically human in size and form.the premolars and molars are larger than modern man.the right half of the pelvis is typically human in form excepting the ischium, which resembles that of an ape.

Telanthropus capensis.

Swartkrans.a lower jaw is discovered.the jaw is almost complte except the left condyle and right condyle.the ramus of the jaw id broad andshort.the simian shelf(the inner musles that supports teeth.) is absent.the mylohyoid groove extends up the mandibular foramen,as found in human mandible.mandible resemble the hiedelberg jaw.

Zinjanthropus boisei:

Earliest know man.could make tools.communicate simple ideas in sound.at his stage man was still a food gatherer and not a hunter of large animals.Olduvai george-Tanganyika territory.complete skull without mandible.larger part of tibia.600,000 years ago.upper part of lower plsistocene.cranialcapacity 600cc.thepostorbital constriction is marked thus making the temporal fossaie large.the saggital crest is best developed.the supraorbital toruss is massive.the interorbital region is of enormous size.the face islong and broad.the facial and zygomatic portions of the maxilla are large.the nasal bones are long and narrow.

The dental series isregelar without any premaxillary diastema.the canine are notlarger than the those of the contemporary man.the premolars and molars are however very large.

The mastoid process is well developed.the nuchal crest though strongly developed is hominid in its form.the foramen magnum is situated more anteriorly than it is in the skull of contemporary man.this suggests thatZijanthropus habitually walked erectly.stature isnot estimated than 4 feet 9 inches.

Homo habilis:

Olduvai george.parts of skull,upper jaw and lower jaw.

Zinjanthropus and homohabilis seemto live during the same time.Hh however represents a more advanced type.Homo habilis represents a hominid stage of evolution between anthropithecus and homo erectus, and therefoere they want to establish a new genus for homo habilis.in respect of cranial vault,nuchal region,dentition homo habilis resembles homo sapiens.however to many homo habilis is a variety of australopithecine and may be regarded as a relatively progressive australopithecus.

Meganthropus Palaeojavanicus:

Djetes beds of java.the jaws were massive having large teeth.it was not so large and primitive that it could not be included under australopithecine.

The skull has relatively small cranium with large jaw, thereby making it apelike in appearance.crests on top of the skull,heavy supraorbital ridges, marked facial prognathism.etc.of australopithecine are also apelike features.australopithecine skull is within the range of homo sapiens.

The cranialcapacity of Australopithecine ranges from 435 to 700cc.modern man 850 to 1700cc.modern gorillas 420 to 752cc.thus in this respect australopithecine is closer to apes.brain:body ratio australopithecine is closer to homo sapiens.A1:42, H1:47 whilw Gorilla is:1:420.

The lower jaw is large and apelike appearance, but in general the jaw has many hominid features.simian shelf is absent unlike ape.it has menial formaen.

The teeth is larger of australopithecine are larger than those of man.the incisors are vertical and small,smaller than those of apes.thecanines are also smaller in size.Diastema is absent.the anterior lower premolars are bicuspid as in man.sexual diamorphism of the canines is not seen.

The long bones and pelvis suggest habitual erect posture and bipedal locomotion of the australopithecine.the pelvis shows some typical hominid characteristics.the shape of the illium,arm and leg bones, is quite humanlike. The talus exhibits an interesting admixture of hominid and pongid feature.



A wide range of variations in respect of physical features is obserbed among the members

Pithecanthropus erectus:(ape man with erect posture)

trinil,Java.The skeletal material consist of a skull cap, three teeth,a lower premolar,two upper molars and a femur.middle pleistocene.the skull cap is18.5 cm in length and 13 cmin breadth thus giving a cephalic index of 70.

the cranial capacity is estimatedto be940 cc.inrespect it stands between ape(650) andman(1700).the cranium is flattened in vertical direction.in respect of the development of brain also it is intermidiate between man and ape.

The teeth are of enormous size.each one is larger than the corresponding human tooth.the roots of the molar are strong and divergent(ape like).the crown resemble more that of man than that of apes.

Femur is complete and 45.5 cmin length, which suggest height of the individual to be 167 to 170 cm.the linea aspera is fully developed, a suggestion of erect posture.

Pithecanthropus stands in the direct line of evolution of modern man, being truly intermidiate between man and the apes.

Pithecanthropus stands on aside branch that rises from the main human stem.the side branch could not grow more and thus it became extinct.

Pithecanthropus is no more than a highly evolved giant ape related to the gibbon group.

Though pithecanthropus shows a mixture of antropoid ape and humanoid characters,its erect posture, its brain formation,its other characteristics are more human than simian.chin is absent diastema is present.

Sinanthropus pekinensis:

Peking,china.two fossil teeth.Later skull fragments of about 40 different individual of both sexes was found.middle pleistocene.avg. Max. Length of the skull is 19.4 cm.the cranial index is72.2.thus it is a very long head.the cranial capacity varies from 850 to 1300cc.theskull bones are verythick and massive.

The forehead id receding.it is separated bya distinct furrow fromthe superorbital ridge which are pronounced and continuous.

The orbits are large.the molar bones are very high and promonent.the nasal bridge is relatively high and broad.the nose as a whole is very broad.the nassl spine isabsent.the upper jaw is not hallowed out as in modern man.chin is absent. Diastema is absent

Wadjak man:

Wadjak,trinil,java.Pleistocene period.female skull,cranial capacityy is 1550cc,other skull is 1650cc of male.the skulls are dolichocranial,the forehead is receding;the superorbital ridges are prominent.the orbits are low and broad.the nasal aperture is wide.the nasal bones are small, flat and narrow.the alveolar portion projects forward.

Keilor skull:

Keilor,melbourne,australia.skull identical to wadjak.

Homo Soloensis(Solo man):

Solo river,central java.fossil skulls.upper paliolithic age.cranial capacity of 1100cc.the forehead was low receding.the superorbital ridged were prominent forming a continuous ridge.the soloman shows more more close affinities with pithecanthropus than simanthropus.it resembles the rhodesian and the neanderthal men also.

Homo heidelbergensis(the mauer jaw):

Mauer,germany.lower jaw with all its teeth..lower pleistocene.

The jaw is very large and masisve and it gives avery powerful appearance.the height and breadth beingabout 6.6 cmand 5 cm.the horizontal ramus is very high and massive.,much more so than modern man.the lower border of it is concave as in baboons whereas in anthropoid apes and men it is not so.the obligue ridge on the inferior surface is faint,suggesting weak mylohoid mussles.

The angle of jaw is truncated as in the orang andd neanerthal man.

The alveolar borgder i sparabolic in shape.in the apes it is u shaped.no diastema is present.the teeth are of quite ordinary size.the incisors are normal.the canine is small and it does not project beyong the level of other teeth.

Thus it is seen that the jaw shows some remarkable simian feature while the dentition is althogether human.

Atlanthropus mauritanicus:

mascara,algeria.two human mandibles were found.early middle pleistocene.the jaws were very robust,there were no simian shelf and no chin.resembled the jaw of sinanthropus.it suggests that it belonged to pithecunthropine group.

Sidi abderrahman:

sidiabderehman,casablanca,morocco.mandible was incomplete.in respect ofalmost allthe characters the mandible and the teeth closely resemble those of atlanthropus. And pithecanthropines.


Rabat andstone ,casablanca.middle pleistocene period.the remains included the cranial fragments.part of the maxilla ofthe left side with pallete and teeth and part of the body of mandible wuth threeincisors, the canine and the first molar.the mandible was robust and the teeth were large.

Rhodesian man:

Rhodesia,south africa.skull with lower jaw,parts of femora,a trivia,a sacrum,portions of two pelvis.looks upper pleistocene.skull-208-210mm.eight 131cm,cranial capacity-1280-1400cc.the suparorbital ridges are prominent.the forehead is receding.the maxillary bones lack canine fossa and are very large and flat.the nasal aperture is very large.the orbits are high and of great size.the teeth are of madern human proportion.the canine is normal.the third molars are reduced in size.though itis putin homo erectus,in most of the physicall features the rhodesian man resembles the neanderthal man and considered the neanderthals from africa.

Saldanha man:

saldnha bay,cape town.hominid skull cap and fragments of alower jaw.skullcap features resembles rhodesian man.both skullare so similar.jaw resembles the hiedelberg jaw.the ramus of the former is however less robust the latter.early upperpleistocene.


Lived in europe, north africa, the near east and parts of asia during the period from about 100,000 to 35,000 years ago.stage between homo erectus and modern man.

Neanderthal Man:

Neanderthal,germany.skullcap was found.(Mousterian-mid paleolithic period.)a change in tool type was also found.the mousterian culture is represented by points and scrapers of various designs and artifacts.

The skeleton of la chapelle aux saints is a typical example of the neantherthal race.

A skull with lower jaw, aclavicle, two almost complete humerri,some bones of hand,fragments of ilia,two incomplete femora,parts of tibiae.

Upper pleistocene.

Characters of skull:

cranial capacity is 1600cc,heavy looking and verylarge,208mm in length and 155mm in breadth giving acephalic indeex of 74.5.thus it is dolichocranial.the face is highly developed in comparision with the cranium.

Norma Verticalis:the skull is more enlarged behing than in front.the projecting parietal eminences are placed far back.the lowness of the vault makes the skull flattened.the forehead is veryrecceding.the temporal fossae are large.the occipital region is protruding and much depreesed.the squamosal suture is not much arched.

Norma frontalis:the face is long and projects forward.the supraorbital regions are of enormous size and continuous to form a heavy rounded torus.the nose is broad.the nasal aperture is large, wide and pyriform.

Norma occipitalis:the contour is almost circular.the external occipital potrubereance is absent.the whole surface is rough indicating strong muscular impression.

Norma basallis:the palate is large.the mastoid processes are verysmall.the alveolar border is u shaped.

Lower jaw:it is large and small than that of heidalberg jaw.the chin is absent.the angle is truncated.the sigmoid notch is shallow.there is no simian shelf.

Dentition:though it shows some primitive features. It is definitly human.no diastema,the canine is of ordinary size.it doesnot project beyond the level of the other teeth.

The bones of the trunk and limbs.the short strong and stout bones of the skeleton indicate powerful uscular development.

The vertebral column is short and stout.the clavicles are long slender and arched.

The humerus is strong,short and possesses a large head.the forearm is short in relationtothe upper arm.the hand is quite human in character.

The femur is massive, strong and it has a large head.the shaft is bowed forward. And does not show sharp development of linea aspera.the tibia is short and strong.the head is bent back and the knee joint suggest that the neanderthal man perhaps walked with his knees bent.

The headof the ankle bone is directed sharply inward suggesting the great toe was widely separated.the stature of the old man of la chapelle aus saints was 5 feet 1 inch.

Some Members of The Progressive Neanderthals.


Krapina,ugoslavia.the skeleton matarial shows some typical nanderthal character.the head was brachycephalic.


Steinheim,germany.skull without the lower jaw.cranilaindex was 70 and cranial capacity was 1070cc.it was rather small for a neanderthaloid though in the characters of superabital torus and certain other features the ssteinheimskull resemble the conservatives neanderthal type.infacial and ocipital parts it showa a marked tendency towards a neanthropic type.


Ehringsdorf,germany.shattered skull were discovered.in the character of superorbital ridges,the temporal bone,the formof occiput,the jaw andthe teeth,ehring man is a clasic Neanderthal.other characters resembles that of a neanthropic man.

Mount carmel:

Palestine.the men were tall.they had massive head.the occiput was slightly projecting.the headd was medium in height.there was no canine fossa.the chin was well developed.

Fate of the neanderthals.

It lists the extermination of the neanderthals by the new comers or the harshness of climate disease conflict etc.

The London skull:

the remians consist of the occipital,left parietal and parts of right parietal bones of single female individual.though the skull resembles that of the neanderthals,it is more closer to cro-magnon type.cranialcapacity is 1260cc.upper pleistocene.

Swanscombe man:

Swanscombe,england.human left parietal and occipiatl bone were discovered.in form and characters these bones are almost same as those of modern man,except the remarkable thickness and the great breadth of the occipital.cranial capacity is 1325cc.

The Galley Hill skeleton:

england,the remains was not few thousands year old.

The Fontechevade skulls:

france.two brain cases,one of which is complete,the remains resemble those of modern men in shape and size.the bones are however quite thick.the skull is long headed.cranialcapacity is 1450cc.the superaorbital ridges are absent.the skulls shows the forerunners of neanderthals man may have intermixed.

Boskop skull:

Boskop,transvaal.cranialcapacity is 1700cc.the head is long.parietal bones are thick.stature is estimitated at 5’ 6”.

Men of Late Pleistocene.


Grimaldi,mediterranean coastal region.skeleton of a a women of 30 and men of 15 which was stained in a red ochre.suggests intentional burial.late pleistocene.

Description-skull:long, narrow and high.they are hyperdolichocephalic.the female had a cranial index of 68.5 and boy 69.2.the head height is about 11.5cm.cranial capacity of female skull was 1265cc.boy was1455cc.the region of parietal bossess are flattened.the mastoid processes are small.below the cheek bones it is very narrow.disharmonic head.

The superaorbital ridges are feebly developed and the forehead is well developed but slightly buldging forward.the orbits are large and sub rectangular.

The nose is broad.the bridge is low and the nasal root is depressed.the canine fossae are deep.the alveolar prognateism is marked.the palate is very deep,long and narrow.

The jaw is strong with its broad and low ascending ramii and thick body the chin is poorly developed.the alveolar margin of the lower jaw projects forward.

The teethare large.the upper molars have four well developed cusps and the lower has five well developed cusps.

Trunk and Limbs:female height 5 feet 3 inches and boy 5feet 1 and half inches.the lower limb is exaggeratedly long in terms of upper limbs.thus in limbs porportions the grimaldi man resembles negroids.

The grimaldi man is comparable to the modern negro or negroid types.


cro-magnon,france.skeletons of two adult men, onewomen,an infant and anold man.late preistocene and later than grimaldi negroids.

Skull:large and massive.lengh(20.3cm) to breadth 15cm thus skull is dolichocephalic.the vault is high.craninal capacity 1660cc.the forehead is broad and moderately high.supraorbital ridges are low and wide.

The face is very broad, short and flat.the orbits are rectangular in form.the breadth is much greater than height.the zygomatic region is strong,large and prominent.the nose is long and narrow-leptorrhine.the nasal bones are high.the maxillary regions show marked prognathism.

The lower jaw is strong but not very massive.the ascending ramii are not very wide.a well marked chin is present.the tibia is platynemic,that is flat fromside to side.

Stature is estimated 168.4cm.as regards limb proportions the leg is long as compared with the thigh, and the forearm is long in relation to arm.

Cro-magnon differs from grimaldi:

less marked facial prognatheism, less dolichocephalic head, absolute longness of the skull.leptorrhine nose as against platyrrhine in grimaldi,taller stature.limb proportions.

The predmost people:

predmost.cranial capacity 1590cc,5’ 7’’ tall, the height and many other charcterissticslike development of supraorbital ridges preauricular height of the skull,suggest neanderthal cromagnon ancestry of the predmost.prognatheismm are also present.Predmost manwas a contemporary of neanderthal man.


Chancelade, france.Human skeleton with arms and knees.magdalenium time.

The skull is long and narrow measuring 19.4cm in length and 18.75 in breadth.cranial index of 70.9(dolichocephalic).cranial capacity 1530cc.the supraorbital ridges are slightly marked.the forehead is almost vertical.the mastoid process are fully developed.a ridge at sagittal plane of the skull is noticed.

The face is very long and broad.cheek bones are strongly developed.the orbits are large.the nose is leptorrhine.no sub nasal prognathesim is noticed.

The lower jaw is strong but very narrow.the ascending ramii are very bad.the chinis prominent.stature was 5feet 1 inch.

The limb bones are strong and massive suggests a mascular body.the femur is bent.the tibia is platymetric.the foot is large.

The chancelade man resembles the modern eskimos:short stature.large high dolicochephalic head.elevated saggital region.a very wide and long face.prominent cheek bones.narrow nasal aperture:

The Mesolithic races:

the beginning of the holocene was characterised by the introduction of a number of specialised races,especially in europre.the chief representative of measolithic races come from europe and the three most important series are dealt with below.

Muge man:

Muge,portugal.skeletons were found.cranialindex ranging from around 69 to 82.the brain box is of medium size,with an oviod contour, high but rather flattish on the top and with a rounded occiput.the orbits are low.the nasal index is mesorrhine and the face is mesoprosopic, being both low and extremely narrow.slight alveolar prognathism.a notable feature is the absence of sex differentiation from the metrical standpoint,between the male and the female crania.the long bones suggest a height of 160cm formales and 152cmfor females.

Teviec Men:

teviec,france.skeletons have beeen found.cranial index between 72 and 77.cranila form is dolicho-mesocephalic.the skulls are massive thiick boned and high vaulted.the faces are a low and broad.the orbits are low.the nose is mesorrhine.the stature of these people were low,being 159cm for male and 151cmfor females.

Ofnet men:

Offnet cave,bavaria.skulls were found.skulls were painted with red ochre suggesting deliberate burial.the skulls are not homogeneous and include two dolichocephalic forms besides brachycephalic and mesocephalic forms.cranila index ranges from 70to 87.very broad face and extremely low orbits.upper paleolithic survival.

The mesolithic age lasting about nine thousand years in europe from the close of the pleistocene to the beginning of the neolithic period introduces a number of people having distinctive racial charcteristics.

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